Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

S. D. Shenkin, J. M. Starr, A. Pattie, M. A. Rush, Lawrence Jeffrey Whalley, I. J. Deary

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    92 Citations (Scopus)


    Aims-To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.

    Methods-Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age It in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449 of these children.

    Results-Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of < 2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.

    Conclusion-In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)189-196
    Number of pages7
    JournalArchives of Disease in Childhood
    Publication statusPublished - 2001


    • birth weight
    • Barker hypothesis
    • social class
    • intelligence
    • COHORT
    • GROWTH


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