Fungal infections represent a significant health burden, especially in immunocompromised individuals, yet many of the underlying immunological mechanisms involved in the recognition and control of these pathogens are unclear. The identification of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has shed new insights on innate microbial recognition and the initiation of immune responses; however, recent evidence indicates that the 'non-TLR' receptors also have a significant role in these processes, particularly in antifungal immunity. Of interest are members of the C-type lectin-receptor family, including the mannose receptor, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and the collectins. Here, we review the roles of each of these receptors, describing how they contribute to fungal recognition, uptake and killing and also participate in the induction and/or modulation of the host immune response.
- Receptors, Mitogen