Background: Canagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, but effects on specific cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain, as are effects in people without previous cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). Methods: In CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation), 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo on a background of optimized standard of care. Results: Primary prevention participants (n=2181, 49.6%) were younger (61 versus 65 years), were more often female (37% versus 31%), and had shorter duration of diabetes mellitus (15 years versus 16 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (n=2220, 50.4%). Canagliflozin reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]; P=0.01), with consistent reductions in both the primary (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.94]) and secondary (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]) prevention groups (P for interaction=0.25). Effects were also similar for the components of the composite including cardiovascular death (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61-1.00]), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.59-1.10]), and nonfatal stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.56-1.15]). The risk of the primary composite renal outcome and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure were also consistently reduced in both the primary and secondary prevention groups (P for interaction >0.5 for each outcome). Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly reduced major cardiovascular events and kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, including in participants who did not have previous cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)739-750
Number of pages12
Issue number9
Early online date11 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Sources of Funding
This study is sponsored by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, which funded the trial. The sponsor was involved in the study design, the writing of the report, and the decision to submit the article for publication. Canagliflozin has been developed by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, in collaboration with Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

The authors thank all participants, investigators, and trial teams for their participation in the trial and the following people for their contributions to the statistical monitoring and analyses and the protocol development, safety monitoring, and operational implementation over the duration of the trial: Maria Ali, Jim Baldassarre, Dainius Balis, William Canovatchel, Jun Chen, Pei-Ling Chu, Trokon Cooke, Jag Craig, Jacki Danyluk, Mehul Desai, Lyndal Hones, Alan Jenkins, Mary Kavalam, Cha-Chi Lo, Xinchao Luo, Gary Meininger, Rich Oh, Rose Qiu, Nicole Schmitt, Danielle Siebenkaess, Roger Simpson, Anna Temu, Payal Thakkar, Michele Wells, and Renata Yong. The Steering Committee designed the study in conjunction with the sponsor. Dr Mahaffey wrote the first draft of the paper, had full access to the study design information, and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. All authors provided input into subsequent drafts and approved the final version for submission. Editorial assistance for manuscript preparation was provided by Alaina Mitsch, PhD, and Kimberly Dittmar, PhD, of MedErgy, and was funded by Janssen Global Services, LLC. All authors reviewed and approved the manuscript.


  • canagliflozin
  • clinical trial
  • diabetes mellitus
  • primary prevention
  • renal insufficiency
  • chronic
  • secondary prevention
  • RISK


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