Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups.