The Badejo and Linguado oil fields are hosted within non-conventional volcanic reservoirs which produced commercial hydrocarbons from the Lower Cretaceous Cabiúnas Formation, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Despite over 30 years of production, limited characterization of the nature and reservoir properties of the volcanic reservoirs have been presented to date. A comprehensive reappraisal of the Cabiúnas Formation volcanic reservoirs is presented in this study incorporating extensive existing and new data including core descriptions, laboratory petrophysical analyses, petrography, QEMSCAN, SEM, wireline, and microtomography results from five cored intervals of wells spanning the main reservoirs of the Badejo and Linguado fields. Volcanic facies analyses of the sequences reveal a predominance of subaerial effusive basic volcanic rocks interbedded with sediment and in several cases comprising peperites revealing intricate lava-sediment interaction products. Four volcano-sedimentary units are identified, showing alternations between low (compound pahoehoe lava dominated Units 1 and 3) and high (tabular rubbly pahoehoe lava dominated Units 2 and 4) effusion rates. Paleoenvironmental conditions also varied between units with extensive oxidation present in Unit 1 inferred to relate to extended periods of subaerial exposure and weathering in an arid environment. Overlying Units 2–4 reveal an increase in humidity evidenced by an increase in the presence of well sorted fine-grained sediment interlayers, peperites, and non-marine ostracods. Both original facies and alteration reveal key controls on reservoir properties. Extensive weathering and alteration of Unit 1 caused pervasive filling of original porosity (vesicles and fractures) and resulted in reservoir degradation. Lesser weathering of overlying Units 2, 3 and 4, resulted in improved reservoir properties which can be clearly linked to volcanic intra-facies including vesiculated and autobrecciated lava flow tops which commonly reveal extensive oil staining. This study reveals the intricate interplay between primary volcanic facies and subsequent alteration history in dictating volcanic reservoir properties in a successful offshore oil field development.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by Petrobras (CENPES – Research Center and Exploration) projects. Especially the authors of Petrobras appreciate the fruitful discussions with the VMAPP Consortium (Volcanic Margin Petroleum Prospectivity) team and workshops. The authors would like to thank also all those who contributed in some way to make this work possible. Dougal A. Jerram and Sverre Plank acknowledge the support from the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme, project 22372 (CEED).
Data Availability StatementNo data was used for the research described in the article.
- Cabiúnas formation
- Non-conventional volcanic reservoir
- Subaerial lava-flow
- Volcanic facies