Characterizing Oxygen Local Environments in Paramagnetic Battery Materials via 17O NMR and DFT Calculations

Ieuan D. Seymour, Derek S. Middlemiss, David M. Halat, Nicole M. Trease, Andrew J. Pell, Clare P. Grey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Experimental techniques that probe the local environment around O in paramagnetic Li-ion cathode materials are essential in order to understand the complex phase transformations and O redox processes that can occur during electrochemical delithiation. While Li NMR is a well-established technique for studying the local environment of Li ions in paramagnetic battery materials, the use of 17O NMR in the same materials has not yet been reported. In this work, we present a combined 17O NMR and hybrid density functional theory study of the local O environments in Li2MnO3, a model compound for layered Li-ion batteries. After a simple 17O enrichment procedure, we observed five resonances with large 17O shifts ascribed to the Fermi contact interaction with directly bonded Mn4+ ions. The five peaks were separated into two groups with shifts at 1600 to 1950 ppm and 2100 to 2450 ppm, which, with the aid of first-principles calculations, were assigned to the 17O shifts of environments similar to the 4i and 8j sites in pristine Li2MnO3, respectively. The multiple O environments in each region were ascribed to the presence of stacking faults within the Li2MnO3 structure. From the ratio of the intensities of the different 17O environments, the percentage of stacking faults was found to be ca. 10%. The methodology for studying 17O shifts in paramagnetic solids described in this work will be useful for studying the local environments of O in a range of technologically interesting transition metal oxides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9405-9408
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number30
Early online date21 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Via our membership in the UKs HEC Materials Chemistry Consortium, funded by the EPSRC (EP/L000202), this work used the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service. Research was carried out at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, through the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886. C.P.G., I.D.S. and N.M.T. acknowledge the NorthEast Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Award DE-SC0012583. I.D.S. also acknowledges the Geoffrey Moorhouse Gibson Studentship from Trinity College Cambridge. A.J.P. acknowledges the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02- 05CH11231, under the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Subcontract 7057154.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Chemical Society.


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