There is little known about pregnancy-related complications and comorbidity in this group of women. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to find out whether COVID-19 may cause different manifestations and outcomes in the antepartum and postpartum period or not.
Material and methods
We searched databases, including Medline (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Web of sciences, Cochrane library, Ovid, and CINHAL to retrieve all articles reporting the prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications, in addition to clinical manifestations, in pregnant women with COVID-19 that published with English language January to November 2020.
Seventy-four studies with total 5560 pregnant women included in this systematic review. The results show that the pooled prevalence of neonatal mortality, lower birth weight, stillbirth, premature birth, and intrauterine fetal distress in women with COVID-19 was 4% (95% Cl: 1 - 9%), 21% (95% Cl: 11 - 31%), 2% (95% Cl: 1 - 6%), 28% (95% Cl: 13 - 43%), and 14% (95% Cl: 4 - 25%); respectively. Moreover, the pooled prevalence of fever, cough, diarrhea, and dyspnea were 56% (95% Cl: 32 - 81%), 29% (95% Cl: 21 - 38%), 9% (95% Cl: 2 - 16%), and 3% (95% Cl: 1 - 6%) in pregnant women with COVID-19. Two studies reported that pregnant women with severe COVID pneumonia have higher levels of d-dimer. Also, COVID pneumonia is more common in pregnant women than non-pregnant.
According to this meta-analysis, pregnant women with COVID-19 with or without pneumonia, are at a higher risk of preeclampsia, preterm birth, miscarriage and cesarean delivery. Furthermore, the risk of LBW and intrauterine fetal distress seems to be increased in neonates. In addition, our evaluations are investigative of higher risk of COVID-19 in the third trimester in pregnant women comparing to the first and second trimester. It can be due to higher BMI in the third trimester causing to increase the likelihood of disease deterioration, which can trigger a cascade of side effects starting with coagulation, pneumonia, hypoxemia affecting the placenta leading to ICU admission, fetal distress, premature birth and higher rates of C-section.
- Maternal outcomes
- neonatal outcomes
- clinical manifesto