Cohort profile for the STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally (STRADL) study: A depression-focused investigation of Generation Scotland, using detailed clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging assessments

Tina Habota* (Corresponding Author), Anca-Larisa Sandu, Gordon D. Waiter, Christopher J. McNeil, J. Douglas Steele, Jennifer A. Macfarlane, Heather C. Whalley, Ruth Valentine, Dawn Younie, Nichola Crouch, Emma L. Hawkins, Yoriko Hirose, Liana Romaniuk, Keith Milburn, Gordon Buchan, Tessa Coupar, Mairi Stirling, Jagpal Baljit, Beverly MacLennan, Lucasz PribaMatthew A. Harris, Jonathan D. Hafferty, Mark J. Adams, Archie I. Campbell, Donald J. MacIntyre, Alison Pattie, Lee Murphy, Rebecca M. Reynolds, Rebecca Elliot, Ian S. Penton-Voak, Marcus R. Munafò, Kathryn L. Evans, Jonathan R. Seckl, Joanna M. Wardlaw, Stephen M. Lawrie, Christopher S. Haley, David J. Porteous, Ian J. Deary, Alison D. Murray, Andrew M. McIntosh

*Corresponding author for this work

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STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally (STRADL) is a population-based study built on the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) resource. The aim of STRADL is to subtype major depressive disorder (MDD) on the basis of its aetiology, using detailed clinical, cognitive, and brain imaging assessments. The GS:SFHS provides an important opportunity to study complex gene-environment interactions, incorporating linkage to existing datasets and inclusion of early-life variables for two longitudinal birth cohorts. Specifically, data collection in STRADL included: socio-economic and lifestyle variables; physical measures; questionnaire data that assesses resilience, early-life adversity, personality, psychological health, and lifetime history of mood disorder; laboratory samples; cognitive tests; and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Some of the questionnaire and cognitive data were first assessed at the
GS:SFHS baseline assessment between 2006-2011, thus providing longitudinal measures of depression and resilience. Similarly, routine NHS data and early-life variables are linked to STRADL data, further providing opportunities for longitudinal analysis. Recruitment has been completed and we consented and tested 1,188 participants.
Original languageEnglish
Article number185
Number of pages20
JournalWellcome open research
Early online date16 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Grant information: STRADL is supported by the Wellcome Trust through a Strategic Award (104036/Z/14/Z). GS:SFHS received core support from the CSO of the Scottish Government Health Directorates (CZD/16/6) and the Scottish Funding Council (HR03006). ADM is supported by Innovate UK, the European Commission, the Scottish Funding Council via the Scottish Imaging Network SINAPSE, and the CSO. HCW is supported by a JMAS SIM Fellowship from the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, by an ESAT College Fellowship from the University of
Edinburgh, and has received previous funding from the Sackler Trust. LR has previously received financial support from Pfizer (formerly Wyeth) in relation to imaging studies of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. JDH is supported by the MRC. DJM is an NRS Clinician, funded by the CSO. RMR is supported by the British Heart Foundation. ISP-V and MRM are supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the
University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health; and MRM is also supported by the MRC MC_UU_12013/6). JMW is supported by MRC UK Dementia Research Institute and MRC Centre and project grants, EPSRC, Fondation Leducq, Stroke Association, British Heart Foundation, Alzheimer Society, and the European Union H2020 PHC-03-15 SVDs@Target grant agreement (666881). DJP is supported by Wellcome Trust Longitudinal Population Study funding (216767/Z/19/Z) the Eva Lester bequest to the University of Edinburgh. AMM is additionally supported by the MRC (MC_PC_17209, MC_PC_MR/R01910X/1, MR/S035818/1), The Wellcome Trust (216767/Z/19/Z ), The Sackler Trust, and has previously received research funding from Pfizer, Eli Lilly, and Janssen. Both AMM and IJD are members of The University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, part of the cross council Lifelong Health and
Wellbeing Initiative (MR/K026992/1); funding from the BBSRC and MRC is gratefully acknowledged. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript


  • cognition
  • depression
  • Generation Scotland
  • longitudinal
  • neuroimaging
  • psychological resilience


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