Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

Despoina Kaloriti, Anna Tillmann, Emily Cook, Mette Jacobsen, Tao You, Megan Lenardon, Lauren Ames, Mauricio Barahona, Komelapriya Chandrasekaran, George Coghill, Daniel Goodman, Neil A. R. Gow, Celso Grebogi, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Piers Ingram, Andrew McDonagh, Alessandro P. S. de Moura, Wei Pang, Melanie Puttnam, Elahe RadmaneshfarMaria Carmen Romano, Daniel Silk, Jaroslav Stark, Michael Stumpf, Marco Thiel, Thomas Thorne, Jane Usher, Zhikang Yin, Ken Haynes, Alistair J. P. Brown*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-709
Number of pages11
JournalMedical Mycology
Issue number7
Early online date5 Apr 2012
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


  • environmental-changes
  • nitrosative stress
  • drug-resistance
  • albicans
  • Candida glabrata
  • Candida albicans
  • combinatorial stress
  • oxidative stress
  • transcriptional response
  • nitric-oxide
  • activated protein-kinase
  • saccharomyces-cerevisiae
  • osmotic stress
  • yeast


Dive into the research topics of 'Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this