Although cytology-based screening programs have significantly reduced mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer, the global consensus is that primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer. However, the optimal triage strategy for HPV-positive women to avoid over-referral to colposcopy may be setting specific. As Japan requires data that have been generated domestically to modify screening guidelines, we conducted a 3-year prospective study, COMparison of HPV genotyping And Cytology Triage (COMPACT), to evaluate the potential role of HPV16/18 partial genotyping and cytology for primary HPV screening. In total, 14 642 women aged 20 to 69 years undergoing routine screening at 3 centers in Hokkaido were enrolled. Conventional cytology and HPV testing were carried out. Women with abnormal cytology or HPV16/18 positivity underwent colposcopy. Those with 12 other high-risk (hr) HPV types underwent repeat cytology after 6 months. Primary study endpoints were detection of high-grade cervical disease defined as CIN2/CIN3 or greater as determined by consensus pathology. Prevalence of cytological abnormalities was 2.4%. hrHPV, HPV 16, and HPV 18 were detected in 4.6%, 0.9%, and 0.3% of women, respectively. HPV16/18 were detected in all (8/8) invasive cervical cancers and in all (2/2) adenocarcinomas in situ. Both cytological abnormalities and hrHPV positivity declined with increasing age. This is the first Japanese study to investigate the role of partial genotyping and cytology in an HPV-based screening program. Results should help policy-makers develop guidelines for future cervical screening programs and management of cervical abnormalities based on HPV genotype.
The authors would like to thank all the women who participated in the present study.
- cervical cancer screening
- COMPACT study
- Human Papillomavirus
- deoxyribunocleic acid testing
- partial genotyping