Comprehensive paternity assignment: genotype, spatial location and social status in song sparrows, Melospiza Melodia

Rebecca J. Sardell, Lukas F. Keller, Peter Arcese, Thomas Bucher, Jane M. Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


Comprehensive, accurate paternity assignment is critical to answering numerous questions in evolutionary ecology. Yet, most studies of species with extra-pair paternity (EPP) fail to assign sires to all offspring. Common limitations include incomplete and biased sampling of offspring and males, particularly with respect to male location and social status, potentially biasing estimated patterns of paternity. Studies that achieve comprehensive sampling and paternity assignment are therefore required. Accordingly, we genotyped virtually all males and > 99% of 6-day-old offspring over 16 years in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population and used three complementary statistical methodologies to attempt complete paternity assignment for all 2207 offspring. Assignments were highly consistent across maximum likelihood methods that used solely genotype data, and heuristic and integrated Bayesian analyses that included data describing individual locations. Sires were assigned to > 99% of all genotyped offspring with >= 95% confidence, revealing an EPP rate of c. 28%. Extra-pair sires primarily occupied territories neighbouring their extra-pair offspring; spatial location was therefore highly informative for paternity assignment. EPP was biased towards paired territorial males, although unpaired territorial and floater males sired c. 13% of extra-pair offspring. Failing to sample and include unpaired males as candidate sires would therefore substantially reduce assignment rates. These analyses demonstrate the integration of genetic and ecological information to achieve comprehensive paternity assignment and direct biological insight, illustrate the potential biases that common forms of incomplete sampling could have on estimated patterns of EPP, and provide an essential basis for understanding the evolutionary causes and consequences of EPP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4352-4364
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Ecology
Issue number19
Early online date31 Aug 2010
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


  • MasterBayes
  • mating system
  • polyandry
  • polygyny
  • extra-pair paternity
  • sexual selection
  • parentage analysis
  • fertilization success
  • tachycineta-bicolor
  • monogamous passerine
  • reproductive success
  • natural-populations
  • microsatellite loci
  • Bayesian framework


Dive into the research topics of 'Comprehensive paternity assignment: genotype, spatial location and social status in song sparrows, Melospiza Melodia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this