Computerized tomography–based anatomic description of the porcine liver

Mohamed Bekheit, Petru O. Bucur, Mylene Wartenberg, Eric Vibert* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background The knowledge of the anatomic features is imperative for successful modeling of the different surgical situations. This study aims to describe the anatomic features of the porcine using computerized tomography (CT) scan. Methods Thirty large, white, female pigs were included in this study. The CT image acquisition was performed in four-phase contrast study. Subsequently, analysis of the images was performed using syngo.via software (Siemens) to subtract mainly the hepatic artery and its branches. Analysis of the portal and hepatic veins division pattern was performed using the Myrian XP-Liver 1.14.1 software (Intrasense). Results The mean total liver volume was 915 ± 159 mL. The largest sector in the liver was the right medial one representing around 28 ± 5.7% of the total liver volume. Next in order is the right lateral sector constituting around 24 ± 5%. Its volume is very close to the volume of the left medial sector, which represents around 22 ± 4.7% of the total liver volume. The caudate lobe represents around 8 ± 2% of the total liver volume.The portal vein did not show distinct right and left divisions rather than consecutive branches that come off the main trunk. The hepatic artery frequently trifurcates into left trunk that gives off the right gastric artery and the artery to the left lateral sector, the middle hepatic artery that supplies both the right and the left medial sectors and the right hepatic artery trunk that divides to give anterior branch to the right lateral lobe, branch to the right medial lobe, and at least a branch to the caudate lobe. Frequently, there is a posterior branch that crosses behind the portal vein to the right lateral lobe. The suprahepatic veins join the inferior vena cava in three distinct openings. There are communications between the suprahepatic veins that drain the adjacent sectors. The vein from the right lateral and the right medial sectors drains into a common trunk. The vein from the left lateral and from the left medial sectors drains into a common trunk. A separate opening is usually encountered draining the right medial sector. The caudate lobe drains separately into inferior vena cava caudal to the other veins. Conclusions Knowledge of the anatomic features of the porcine liver is crucial to the performance of a successful surgical procedure. We herein describe the CT-depicted anatomic features of the porcine liver.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-230
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Early online date9 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to acknowledge of Mylène Wartenberg at the INRIA, Paris, France and Hans Adriansen, Francois Le Compte at the INRA, Tours, France, for their role in data acquisition.

The source of funding: This study was funded mainly by the “Agence de la Biomedicine” through its program of Research (AOR 2009). Eric Vibert, Petru O. Bucur, Mohamed Bekheit acknowledge funding by project ANR-13-TECS-0006 (IFlow).

Authors' contributions: M.B. and P.B. have equally contributed to this study and they are the first authors. M.B. contributed to study concept and design. M.B., P.B., and M.W. contributed to acquisition of data. M.B., P.B., and M.W. contributed to analysis and interpretation of data. M.B. drafted the article. M.B., P.B., M.W., and E.V. approved the final version of the article.


  • Anatomy
  • CT
  • Liver
  • Pig


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