Cytokine and growth factor profiling in patients with the metabolic syndrome

Seyed Reza Mirhafez, Alireza Pasdar, Amir Avan, Habibollah Esmaily, Atefeh Moezzi, Mohsen Mohebati, Zahra Meshkat, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Saied Eslami, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Hamed Ghazavi, Gordon A. Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a pro-inflammatory milieu that may partially account for its association with an increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to (1) evaluate the serum concentrations of twelve cytokines and growth factors (epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1α/-1β/-2/-4/-6/-8/-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TNF-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) in 303 individuals with or without the MetS; and (2) explore their relationship with the presence of the MetS. Patients with the MetS had significantly higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ, EGF, IL-1α/-1β/-2/-4/-6/-8/-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α, whilst serum VEGF concentrations were markedly lower compared with the control group (e.g. 38-55 v. 82-18 pg/ml; P<0-05). Amongst these parameters, IFN-γ and IL-1α emerged as the most significant independent predictors of the MetS. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that patients with the MetS had an altered blood cytokine and growth factor profile that may partially account for its adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies in larger multi-centre settings are required to unravel the role and association of the emerging biomarkers with the MetS and their implication in therapeutic intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1911-1919
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number12
Early online date20 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2015

Bibliographical note

We would like to thank all the patients for their help and participating in the study.

This work was supported by the grant from MUMS, Research Council (M. G.-M., S. R. M., A. A. and A. P.). The results obtained in the present study are part of Mr Seyed Reza Mirhafez's PhD thesis (ID no. 910823) in MUMS. MUMS had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.

The authors' contributions are as follows: M. G.-M., A. P. and Z. M. contributed to the study design; S. R. M., M. M. and A. R. H.-B. conducted the experimental part; S. R. M., M. G.-M., H. R. R., S. E., H. M.-M., H. E. and A. M. contributed to the data analysis; S. R. M., A. P., A. A., G. A. F., A. P. and M. G.-M. contributed to the preparation of the manuscript.

The authors have no conflict of interest.


  • Cytokines
  • Diabetes
  • Growth factors
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolic syndrome


Dive into the research topics of 'Cytokine and growth factor profiling in patients with the metabolic syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this