Designing flexible transport services: guidelines for choosing the vehicle type

Steve Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This paper offers a new approach to identify realistic acceptable levels of subsidy for flexible transport services (FTSs) and then proposes guidance on selection of the most appropriate vehicle types which should be offered in the design of FTS for different environments. The guidance is evidence based and has been derived from detailed analysis of the economic performance of seven FTS pilot applications plus a further five feasibility studies implemented as part of the EU FLIPPER (Flexible Transport Services and ICT platform for Eco-Mobility in urban and rural European areas) project. A major conclusion from the analysis is that the product of the demand multiplied by the average trip distance provides a very strong indicator as to the type of vehicle which should be used. It is hoped this guidance will provide a valuable aid in designing the most suitable and cost-effective FTS solutions in both urban and rural environments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-92
Number of pages17
JournalTransportation Planning and Technology
Issue number1
Early online date3 Dec 2012
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013


  • flexible transport services
  • demand responsive transport
  • guidance
  • vehicle type


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