Early treatment for Class II malocclusion and perceived improvements in facial profile

Kevin O'Brien, Tatiana MacFarlane, Jean Wright, Frances Conboy, Priscilla Appelbe, David Birnie, Stephen Chadwick, Ivan Connolly, Mark Hammond, Nigel Harradine, David Lewis, Simon Littlewood, Catherine McDade, Laura Mitchell, Alison Murray, Julian O'Neill, Jonathan Sandler, Micheal Read, Stephen Robinson, Iain ShawElizabeth Turbill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


The aims of this study were to assess whether early Twin-block appliance treatment improves the attractiveness of Class II profiles and to determine the orofacial features of a profile that most influence the perception of attractiveness.

Silhouetted profiles of 20 treated patients and 20 untreated controls randomly selected from 174 subjects (ages, 8-10 years) of a randomized, controlled trial into the effectiveness of early Class II treatment were assessed by 30 children (ages, 10-11 years) and 24 teaching staff using a 5-point Likert scale. Independent samples t tests were used to compare attractiveness ratings between the treated and untreated groups. Linear regression was used to determine the features defining attractiveness.

Early orthodontic treatment resulted in improved perceptions of facial profile attractiveness. Profiles were likely to be rated as attractive if the overjet was smaller (P = 0.001) and no teeth showed (P <0.05).

Profile silhouettes of children who had received early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion were perceived to be more attractive by peers than those of children who did not receive treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)580-585
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • child
  • dentition, mixed
  • esthetics, dental
  • face
  • female
  • humans
  • linear models
  • male
  • malocclusion, angle class II
  • orthodontic appliances, functional
  • orthodontics, interceptive
  • peer group
  • self concept
  • treatment outcome


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