Ecological impacts of wind farms on birds: Questions, hypotheses, and research needs

Shifeng Wang*, Sicong Wang, Pete Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


Wind power is increasingly being used worldwide as an important contribution to renewable energy, due to its low greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. However, it has been suggested that the development of wind power has caused an adverse impacts on birds. We summarise current evidence of bird fatalities resulting from wind power, outline the reasons why and how birds are killed by wind power developments, and identify research needs to better inform researchers, decision makers, developers and other stakeholders, to help mitigate any adverse impacts of wind power developments on birds. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-607
Number of pages9
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Early online date22 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

Bibliographical note

The study was supported by the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) award: ‘Integrated approaches to ecosystem services and energy: Assessing the global and local impacts on ecosystem services of energy provision in the UK׳ (Grant no.: NE/GOO7748/1). The authors thank Nuala Fitton (University of Aberdeen) for her suggestions on an earlier version of this paper and the anonymous referees for their helpful comments to improve this paper.


  • wind energy
  • bird fatality
  • habitat
  • ecosystem
  • renewable energy
  • energy development
  • collision
  • mortality
  • bats
  • risk


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