Educational Inclusion in Resource-Constrained Contexts: A Study of Rural Primary Schools in Cambodia

Jackie Ravet* (Corresponding Author), Peter Mtika

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


This study investigated the status of educational inclusion in resource-constrained, rural primary schools in Battambang Province, Cambodia using a mixed-method design. A Teacher Efficacy in Inclusive Practices (TEIP) scale was administered to sampled teachers and Headteachers. Classroom observations were undertaken in 5 schools. Interviews were conducted with selected teachers and other education officials. The findings indicate dissatisfaction with the current quality of educational inclusion and identify barriers to good practice. The paper highlights priorities for enhancing educational inclusion in rural, resource constrained contexts and recommends a participatory and culturally sensitive framework for improving overall quality of education.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Early online date15 Apr 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

We are grateful for discussions with, and support for field visits and translation from, Dr. Rany Sam, Dr Ratha Seng (University of Battambang) and Mr Bunlee Khun (Managing Director, Khmer Education NGO [KHEN])

Data Availability Statement

Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at JOURNAL OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION


  • educational inclusion
  • Inclusive practice
  • disability
  • primary teachers
  • quality education
  • Cambodia


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