Effective Ultrasound Acoustic Measurement to Monitor the Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Drying Process with Various Coating Thicknesses

Ye Shui Zhang* (Corresponding Author), James B. Robinson, Rhodri E. Owen, Anand N. P. Radhakrishnan, Juntao Li, Jude O. Majasan, Paul R. Shearing, Emma Kendrick, Dan J. L. Brett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The electrode drying process (DP) is a crucial step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing chain and plays a fundamental role in governing the performance of the cells. The DP is extremely complex, with the dynamics and their implication in the production of electrodes generally being poorly understood. To date, there is limited discussion of these processes in the literature due to the limitation of the existing in situ metrology. Here, ultrasound acoustic measurements are demonstrated as a promising tool to monitor the physical evolution of the electrode coating in situ. These observations are validated by gravimetric analysis to show the feasibility of the technique to monitor the DP and identify the three different drying stages. A possible application of this technique is to adjust the drying rates based upon the ultrasound readings at different drying stages and to speed up the drying time. These findings prove that this measurement can be used as a cost-effective and simple tool to provide characteristic diagnostics of the electrode, which can be applied in large-scale coating manufacturing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2092-2101
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Faraday Institution [EP/S003053/1 grant number FIRG015]. P.R.S. would like to acknowledge the Royal Academy of Engineering (CiET1718\59) for financial support.

Data Availability Statement

The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.1c22150.


  • LIBs
  • drying dynamics
  • drying mechanism
  • electrode drying process
  • ultrasound acoustic measurement


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