Estimating Sensitive Behavior: The ICT and High-Incidence Electoral Behavior

Kathrin Thomas, David Johann, Syliva Kritzinger* (Corresponding Author), Carolina Plescia, Eva Zeglovits

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


When respondents intentionally present themselves in socially desirable ways, survey researchers speak of social desirability bias (SDB) that is introduced to the data. SDB is a challenge to survey research, as it can lead to inaccurate measurements and incorrect conclusions about citizens’ behavior (Phillips & Clancy, 1972). The Item Count Technique (ICT) is a frequently used method in survey research to reduce such bias by indirectly, anonymously, and confidentially asking respondents about the sensitive behavior in question.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157–171
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Public Opinion Research
Issue number1
Early online date26 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

Bibliographical note

This work is supported by the Austrian National Election Study, a National Research Network sponsored by the Austrian Science Fund (S10902-G11).

The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback and Graeme Blair and Kosuke Imai for their helpful support.


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