Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species. Whereas some ornamental features showed strong condition-dependence (yellow auricular feather chroma, yellow and UV chroma of the beak), others were condition-independent and remained highly correlated before and after the molt (auricular patch size and beak UV hue). Our study provides a rare examination of the links between ornament determinism and selection processes in the wild. We highlight the coexistence of ornaments costly to produce that may be honest signals used in mate choice, and ornaments for which honesty may be enforced by social mediation or rely on genetic constraints.
We thank Emilie Lefol for her help in the field, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript. This research was funded by the French Polar Institute (IPEV– Research Program 119) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS- INEE). Field logistic support was provided by Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises. Q.S. was funded by a doctoral fellowship from the Ministère Français de l’Education Supérieur et de la Recherche.
- honest signal
- sexual selection
- social selection