Exploring Patient Safety Culture in a Kuwaiti Secondary Care Setting: A qualitative study

Hamad Alqattan* (Corresponding Author), Jennifer Cleland, Zoe Morrison, Isobel M Cameron

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: Qualitative studies can improve understanding of patient safety culture (PSC), which has been relatively neglected by researchers in the Gulf Cooperation Council context. This study employed a qualitative approach to explore healthcare staff and patients’ perceptions of PSC and how it can be improved. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in a public hospital in Kuwait. Individual face-to-face interviews were used to understand the experience of healthcare staff and patients concerning PSC. After obtaining the required ethical approvals, maximum variation sampling was used. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The analysis was inductive and thematic. Results: A total of 51 participants were included in this study (35 healthcare professionals and 16 patients). Data analysis revealed four overarching themes relevant to the research question: (1) workload; (2) communication; (3) environmental constraints; and (4) incident reporting. These issues were interrelated in practice. Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti participants held different views, particularly about the response to errors and expatriate staff members’ clinical skills. Conclusion: This study revealed multiple factors related to workload, communication, healthcare environment and incident reporting, which hindered the promotion of positive PSC in the included department. The presence of numerous constraints suggests that multiple interventions which target both individual and organisational levels should be implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e77-e85
Number of pages9
JournalSultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Issue number1
Early online date15 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

The first author received a scholarship from the government of Kuwait to do this work.


  • Health Services Research
  • Patient Safety
  • Safety Culture
  • Kuwait


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