Exploring relationships among TPACK components and development of the TPACK instrument

Sonmez Pamuk, Mustafa Ergun, Recep Cakir, Haci Yilmaz, Cemalettin Ayas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


Educators’ interest in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) has been increasing. In parallel with implementations of TPACK-based activities taking place in different settings, efforts for assessing effectiveness of those activities and understanding the overall TPACK framework have also been under investigation. In this study, the main purpose has been placed on understanding the TPACK framework and its dynamics that contribute to effective TPACK development. More specifically, through preservice teachers’ experiences we have explored the nature of relationships among the TPACK components. To do this, a TPACK instrument was developed and the data were analyzed by using multi-stage approaches. Results briefly indicated that all correlations among the components were significant. In the structural equation modeling analyses, TPK and TCK’s impact were statistically powerful contributors to explaining TPACK variance. In addition, and most important, our results suggest that second-level knowledge basis (TPK, TCK, PCK) had a stronger impact than core knowledge basis on predicting TPACK development. TCK in the structural model stands out as the mediator knowledge base. Finally, indirect relationships among some of the TPACK components were found to be of considerable importance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-263
Number of pages23
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sept 2013


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