Facial malformations, including cleft lip and palate, in wild primates in Paraguay

Rebecca L. Smith* (Corresponding Author), Rachel Blood, Paul Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Nine individual Alouatta caraya and Sapajus cay displaying facial malformations were observed across three sites in Paraguay. Six had cleft lip (with or without cleft palate), and three had malformations of the lower lip. This is the first record of cleft lip and/or palate in the genus Alouatta.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-196
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Medical Primatology
Issue number3
Early online date6 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

We would like to thank all PLT volunteers and interns who have participated in the PLT Capuchin Project and Urban Howler Monkey Project and all PLT staff for their support. Fundación Para La Tierra is grateful to the estate of Don Julio Contreras for their endless support of PLT's activities and to Don Odilón Barrios for giving us access to Estancia Santa Ana. R L. Smith is thankful to the National Geographic Society for funding the capuchin project (Grant Number: NGS‐299C‐18) and the Elphinstone Scholarship of the University of Aberdeen. R L. Smith and P Smith are grateful to the PRONII program of Conacyt. Thanks to Jorge Damián Ayala Santacruz for all his support. We are grateful to PRO COSARA for providing accommodation at the Nueva Gambach field site and to Hans, Christine and Pedro Hostettler and Hostettler S.A for allowing us access to their property and supporting the project. All authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on this manuscript.


  • Alouatta
  • Central and South America primates
  • cleft palate
  • congenital deformities
  • Sapajus


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