Colonies of social insects exhibit a spectacular variety of life histories. Here, we documented the degree of variation in colony life-history traits, mostly related to productivity, in two species of wild paper wasps. We then tested for associations between colony life-history traits to look for evidence of trade-offs vs. a life-history productivity syndrome (i.e. all colony performance metrics are positively correlated) and examined whether differences in the individual behavioural tendencies of foundresses (Polistes metricus) or the number of cofoundresses (Polistes fuscatus) influenced colony life history. The majority of our measures of colony life history were positively related, indicating no obvious resource allocation trade-offs. Instead, the positive association of traits into a productivity syndrome appears to be driven by differences in queen or microhabitat quality. Productivity syndrome structure differed only marginally between species. Queen boldness and body size were not associated with colony life history in P. metricus. Colonies initiated by multiple P. fuscatus were more productive, and this advantage was approximately proportional to the number of cofoundresses. These findings demonstrate that colony life-history traits can be associated much like individual life-history traits, and the associations seen here convey that differences in overall productivity drive between-colony differences in life history.
Bibliographical noteWe are indebted to The University of Pittsburgh’s Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology for permitting us to conduct these studies on their land, and the G. Murray McKinley Research Fund and the Arthur and Barbara Pape Endowment Award research grants provided through the University of Pittsburgh to C.M.W. Funding for this work was provided by the Tri-agency Institutional Programs Secretariat Canada 150 Chairs Program to J.N.P. Three helpful anonymous reviewers were invaluable in improving the quality of this paper.
- pace-of-life syndrome
- priority effect