Four CISH paralogues are present in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: differential expression and modulation during immune responses and development

Tanja Maehr, Jose L González Vecino, Simon Wadsworth, Tiehui Wang, Christopher J Secombes

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34 Citations (Scopus)


Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family members are crucial in the control and attenuation of cytokine induced responses via activation of the JAK/STAT, TLR and NF-kB signalling pathways. SOCS proteins orchestrate the termination of many types of immune responses and are often the targets of microbial pathogens exploiting SOCS mechanisms to evade the host's immune response. Through whole and lineage specific genome duplication events, the teleost cytokine/SOCS network is complex. Not only are the orthologues of all mammalian SOCS members present, namely cytokine inducible Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing protein (CISH) and SOCS-1 to -7, but multiple gene copies exist that may potentially become functionally divergent. In this paper we focus on the CISH genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and have cloned two further paralogues, CISHa2 and CISHb2, additional to the known CISHa1 and CISHb1 genes. We present for the first time a comparative expression analysis of these four paralogues, to establish whether subfunctionalisation is apparent. In vivo examination of gene expression revealed a higher constitutive expression level of CISHa paralogues compared to CISHb expression in adult trout tissues. All CISHs were relatively highly abundant in immune tissues but CISHa2 and CISHb2 had highest expression in the heart and muscle. An inverse picture of CISH abundance during trout ontogeny was seen, and further hints at differential roles of the four genes in immune regulation and development. Stimulation of head kidney (HK) leukocytes with trout recombinant interleukin (rIL)-15 and rIL-21 had a major effect on CISHa2 and to a lesser extent CISHa1 expression. In HK macrophages rIL-1β, phytohemagglutinin, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had a strong impact on CISHa2 expression. Yersinia ruckeri infection caused a temporally and spatially differential onset of CISH expression that may be viewed in the context of pathogen evasion strategies. These data, against the backdrop of fish specific whole genome duplication events and functional divergence, provide the first evidence for differential roles of the four trout CISH genes in immune control and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)186-198
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Immunology
Issue number1
Early online date9 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

TW received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland). This work was supported financially by Contract No. 007103 (IMAQUANIM-Improved immunity of aquacultured animals) and FP7-222719 (LIFECYCLE-Building a biological knowledge-base on fish lifecycles for competitive, sustainable European aquaculture) from the European Commission. We thank Pierre Boudinot (Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy-en-Josas, France) and Sam Martin (Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, University of Aberdeen) for providing samples of rainbow trout developmental stages.


  • rainbow trout
  • CISH
  • SOCS family
  • gene expression
  • cytokine simulation
  • bacterial infection


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