Frequency of Restaurant, Delivery and Takeaway Usage Is Not Related to BMI among Adults in Scotland

Ahmad Albalawi, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


BACKGROUND: The frequency of visits to restaurants has been suggested to contribute to the pandemic of obesity. However, few studies have examined how individual use of these restaurants is related to Body Mass Index (BMI).

AIM: To investigate the association between the usage of different types of food outlets and BMI among adults in Scotland.

METHOD: The study was cross-sectional. Participants completed an online survey for seven consecutive days where all food purchased at food outlets was reported each day. We explored the relationship between BMI and usage of these food outlets.

RESULTS: The total number of participants that completed the survey was 681. The BMI of both males and females was not related to frequency of use of Full-Service Restaurants (FSRs), Fast-Food Restaurants (FFRs), delivery or takeaways, when assessed individually or combined (TFOs = total food outlets).

CONCLUSION: These cross-sectional data do not support the widespread belief that consumption of food out of the home at fast-food and full-service restaurants, combined with that derived from deliveries and takeaways, is a major driver of obesity in Scotland.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2501
Number of pages21
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 19 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding: A.A. was supported by a studentship from the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia (KSA). J.R.S. was supported by a Wolfson merit award from the Royal Society.

Author Contributions: A.A., C.H. and J.R.S. conceptualization; A.A. and J.R.S. data curation; A.A. and J.R.S.
formal analysis; A.A., J.R.S. and C.H. investigation; A.A., C.H. and J.R.S. methodology; A.A. software; A.A.
validation; A.A. visualization; A.A. writing—original draft; C.H. and J.R.S. project administration; C.H. and J.R.S.
supervision; C.H. and J.R.S. writing—review & editing. All authors have read and agreed to the published version
of the manuscript.

Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at
Table S1: Sociodemographic survey, Table S2: food outlet usage survey, Table S3: ANOVA analysis: unadjusted


  • food outlet usage
  • obesity
  • energy intake
  • energy contents
  • Energy intake
  • Obesity
  • Food outlet usage
  • Energy contents
  • DIET
  • HOME


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