Benefits from micronutrients within fruit juice and smoothies are well documented, but fewer studies research the role of phytochemicals. Well-controlled human studies are essential to evaluate their impact, particularly on glucose and lipid regulation but also gastrointestinal health. Planning these studies requires data on the potential molecular targets. Here we report a comprehensive metabolomic (LC-MS) analysis of the phytochemical composition of four commonly consumed beverages, including data on whether they are free to be absorbed early in the gastrointestinal tract or bound to other plant components. Smoothies contained a wide range of phenolics (free and bound), whereas the fruit juices contained higher amounts of fewer compounds. Orange juice was rich in bound hesperidin (1.97 ± 0.39 mg/100 mL) and hydroxycinnamic acids, likely to be delivered to the colon with the potential to have an impact on gut health. Apple juice contained free chlorogenic acid (3.11 ± 1.03 mg/100 mL), phloridzin (0.40 ± 0.03 mg/100 mL), catechin (0.090 ± 0.005 mg/100 mL), and epicatechin (0.38 ± 0.02 mg/100 mL), suggesting potential roles in glucose uptake reduction or positive effects on systemic blood flow. Redox screening established that differences in chemical composition impacted on bioactivity, highlighting the importance of availability from the matrix. This suggests that fruit-based beverage interventions should target specific mechanisms depending on the fruits from which they are comprised and in particular, the availability of the individual constituents.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was funded by Innocent plc and the Scottish Government Strategic Research Programme.
This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Ingredients from Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects
- Antioxidant activity
- Fruit juices
- Human studies
- Sugar consumption