Functional Limitations and Survival Following Stroke: Psychological And Clinical Predictors Of 3-Year Outcome

Marie Johnston, Beth Sarah Pollard, V. Morrison, R. S. MacWalter

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42 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies predicting functional outcomes of stroke have mainly used clinical and demographic measures. This study examines the additional predictive value of psychological predictors. A cohort of patients were assessed on 6 occasions between admission to hospital and 3 years post-stroke, with 40 of the original sample of 101 being available at the final assessment. Demographic variables, clinical indexes, and psychological measures were used to predict survival to 3 years and 3-year functional recovery was assessed using measures derived from the Barthel Index which took account of initial levels of performance. For functional recovery, multiple regression analyses showed that fixed clinical and demographic indexes explained 16% to 40% of the variance in recovery. Perceptions of control 6 months after discharge added significantly to the predictive equations. Because these cognitions are modifiable, they offer opportunities for intervention to improve patient outcomes. Multiple regression showed that no psychological variables predicted survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-196
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004


  • disability
  • functional limitations
  • activity limitations
  • stroke
  • perceived control
  • depression
  • myocardial-infarction
  • poststroke depression
  • recovery
  • rehabilitation
  • intervention
  • consequences
  • adjustment
  • prognosis


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