Fuzzy extensions of OWL: Logical properties and reduction to Fuzzy Description Logics

G. Stoilos, G. Stamou, J.Z. Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web, where information would have precisely defined meaning, based on knowledge representation languages. The current W3C standard for representing knowledge is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). OWL is based on Description Logics which is a popular knowledge representation formalism. Although, DLs are quire expressive they feature limitations with respect to what can be said about vague knowledge, which appears in several applications. Consequently, fuzzy extensions to OWL and DLs have gained considerable attention. In the current paper we study fuzzy extensions of the Semantic Web language OWL. First, we present the (abstract) syntax and semantics of a rather elementary fuzzy extension of OWL creating fuzzy OWL (f-OWL). More importantly we use this extension to provide an investigation on the semantics of several f-OWL axioms and more precisely for those which, in classical DLs, can be expressed in different but equivalent ways. Moreover, we present a translation method which reduces inference problems of f-OWL into inference problems of expressive fuzzy Description Logics, in order to provide reasoning support through fuzzy DLs. Finally, we present two further fuzzy extensions of OWL based on fuzzy subsumption and fuzzy nominals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)656-679
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
Issue number6
Early online date25 Jan 2010
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2010


  • fuzzy OWL
  • fuzzy description logics
  • reduction of f-OWL
  • syntactic sugar axioms
  • reduction of f-nominals


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