Gender differences in mortality of hospitalised stroke patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis

Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Fattah* (Corresponding Author), Tiberiu Pana, Toby O Smith, Zahra Pasdar, Maha Aslam, Mamas A Mamas, Phyo Myint

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Gender differences in mortality after stroke remains unclear in the current literature. We therefore aimed to systematically review the gender differences in mortality up to five years after ischaemic (IS) or haemorrhagic stroke (HS) to address this evidence gap.
The literature was systematically searched using Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Medline, and
Web of Science databases, from inception-November 2021. The quality of evidence was appraised using the CASP Cohort-study checklist. Unadjusted and adjusted odds and hazard ratios were meta-analysed separately for IS and HS, and a subgroup analysis stratified by age was performed.
Forty-one studies were included (n=8,128,700; mean-age 68.5yrs; 47.1% female). 37 studies were included in meta-analysis (n=8, 8008, 110). Compared to men, women who had an IS had lower mortality risk in-hospital (0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.97), at one month (0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98), 12-months (0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.98) and five-years (0.93 95%CI 0.90-0.96). Age-stratified analysis showed that this gender difference in mortality was present in women ≥70 years up to one-month post-IS (in-hospital: 0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.97; one-month: 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98), however, in women <70 years the difference was no longer present.
Nevertheless, analysis of crude data showed women were at higher risk of mortality in hospital, at 12-months and five-years (in-hospital: 1.05; 95%CI 1.03-1.07, 12-months: 1.10; 95%CI 1.06-1.14, five-years: 1.06; 95%CI 1.02-1.10). After HS, women had higher mortality risk in-hospital (1.03; 95%CI 1.01-1.04) however, no gender differences were found post-discharge.
The gender differences in post-stroke mortality differ by stroke type, age group and follow-up. Crude stroke mortality in women is higher than in men and this appears to Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation be driven by pre-existing comorbidities. In adjusted models, women have a lower mortality risk following IS, independent of duration of follow-up. After HS, women had higher mortality in hospital however, no gender differences after hospital discharge were found.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107359
Number of pages21
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Early online date11 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

AA received the Leslie Wilson Aberdeen Summer Research Scholarship (ASRS) to carry out the research.


  • stroke
  • ischaemic stroke
  • haemorrhagic stroke
  • mortality
  • gender differences


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