Glocalization, Globalization and Migration: The Case of Scottish Football Supporters in North America

Richard Charles Giulianotti, Roland Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of glocalization is used to analyse the ways in which social actors construct meanings, identities and institutional forms within the sociological context of globalization, conceived in multidimensional terms. This article seeks to advance the sociological grasp of glocalization processes through a fieldwork-rooted study of particular migrant, culturally defined social groups: North American-based supporters of the Scottish football teams Celtic and Rangers. The authors examine four features of glocalization in regard to the migrant experience: the transplantation of the original local culture to a new context; subsequent intracultural identities and practices; intercultural identities and practices; and the potential for the reproduction of 'glocal' identities. Further, they consider projects of glocalization that are attendant upon each of these features. A model is developed that facilitates future comparative and critical investigation in regard to the glocalization projects of social groups that are defined variously by ethnicity, migration or popular culture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-198
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Sociology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006


  • football
  • globalization
  • glocalization
  • migration
  • popular culture
  • Scotland


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