Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation

Sylvia H. Vetter, Tek B. Sapkota, Jon Hillier, Claire M. Stirling, Jennie I. Macdiarmid, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Rosemary Green, Edward J M Joy, Alan D. Dangour, Pete Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg-1 rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg-1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg-1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg-1 product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-241
Number of pages8
JournalAgriculture Ecosystems & Environment
Early online date7 Jan 2017
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jan 2017

Bibliographical note

The study is part of the Sustainable and Healthy Diets in India (SAHDI) project funded by the Wellcome Trust under the ‘Our Planet, Our Health’ programme (Grant number 103932) and the India Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Study led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and funded by the Climate Change, Agricultural and Food Security (CCAFS) programme of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The work also contributes to the Belmont Forum/FACCE-JPI-funded DEVIL project (via UK NERC project (NE/M021327/1). We thank Drs Paresh B. Shirsath and Hanuman S. Jat of CIMMYT for their expert opinion and help during data collection.


  • agriculture
  • Cool farm tool
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • Indian diets
  • sustainability


Dive into the research topics of 'Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this