Growth factors of lower vertebrates: characterization of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1

Patrick C Hanington, Tiehui Wang, Christopher J Secombes, Miodrag Belosevic

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50 Citations (Scopus)


Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) regulates mononuclear cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The functions of CSF-1 are well documented in mammals; however, little is known about CSF-1 biology in lower vertebrates. This is the first report on the identification and functional characterization of a fish CSF-1 molecule expressed highly in the spleen and in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated monocytes. Goldfish CSF-1 is a 199-amino acid protein that possesses the required cysteine residues to form important intra-chain and inter-chain disulfide bonds that allow CSF-1 to form a functional homodimer and to interact with its high affinity receptor, CSF-1R. Recombinant goldfish CSF-1 formed a homodimer and bound to the soluble goldfish CSF-1R. The addition of the recombinant CSF-1 to sorted goldfish progenitor cells, monocytes, and macrophages induced the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and the proliferation of monocyte-like cells. The proliferation of these cells was abrogated by addition of an anti-CSF-1R antibody as well as the soluble CSF-1R. The ability of the soluble CSF-1R to inhibit CSF-1-induced proliferation represents a novel mechanism for the regulation of CSF-1 function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31865-31872
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number44
Early online date6 Sept 2007
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2007


  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Fish Proteins
  • Goldfish
  • Kidney
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Macrophages
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monocytes
  • Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Spleen
  • factor-receptor
  • M-CSF, langsdorfii kidney, cells, proliferation, cultures, vitro


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