This research analyzes the effectiveness of the list experiment and crosswise model in measuring self-plagiarism and data manipulation. Both methods were implemented in a large-scale survey of academics on social norms and academic misconduct. As the results lend little confidence about the effectiveness of the methods, researchers are best advised to avoid them or, at best, to handle them with care.
We thank the anonymous reviewers as well as Alexander Ehlert, Isabel Raabe, and Justus Rathmann for their concise comments and constructive feedback on our work. Co-authors in alphabetical order. Study Design: Julia Jerke, David Johann, Heiko Rauhut, Kathrin Thomas, Antonia Velicu. Coding and Analysis: Julia Jerke, David Johann, Kathrin Thomas, Antonia Velicu. First draft: Julia Jerke, Heiko Rauhut, Kathrin Thomas, Antonia Velicu. Revisions: David Johann, Kathrin
Thomas, Antonia Velicu. Final approval of the paper: Julia Jerke, David Johann,
Heiko Rauhut, Kathrin Thomas, Antonia Velicu.
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), Starting Grant “CONCISE” BSSGIO 155981 of Heiko Rauhut.