Improved leukocyte tracking in mouse retinal and choroidal circulation

Heping Xu, Ayyakkannu Manivannan, Keith A Goatman, Janet Mary Liversidge, Peter Frederick Sharp, John Vincent Forrester, Isabel Joan Crane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study is to develop a now method with which to visualize leukocyte dynamics in murine choroidal and retinal circulation. Both pigmented (B10.RIII) and non-pigmented (BALB/c) mice were used in this study. One hundred mul of 0.05% sodium fluorescein was injected via the mice tail vein to outline the vessel, followed by 150 mul (10(7) cells) C-AM labelled leukocytes. Fundus images were obtained with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The dynamic image sequences were recorded simultaneously on videotape (S-VIIS) and digitally at 25 frames per sec. The digital images were later analysed with a custom-made personal computer-based image analysis system. Both the choroidal and retinal circulation can be visualized in non-pigmented mice in the first few seconds of fluorescein angiography. However, the view of the choroidal and the retinal capillary circulation is soon blurred due to the rapid fluorescein leakage in the choroid. In contrast, in pigmented mice, retinal circulation is clear against the dark background of the choroid, while choroidal circulation is masked behind the pigment epithelial layer and cannot be seen at all. C-A-M labelled leucocytes were clearly seen in the retinal circulation of all experimental mice and in the choroidal circulation of non-pigmented mice for as long as 30 min. The number of labelled circulating cells decreased as time clasped. Cells moved rapidly in the retinal arteries, slowing down or even stopping for a few seconds in the capillary system, and then moved slightly faster again through the postcapillary venules and veins. In non-pigmented mice, significant number of cells were seen to have arrested in the choroidal circulation. There was no difference between B10.RIII mice and BALB/c mice in vessel diameters, leukocyte velocities and shear stresses. This method allows the visualization of leukocytes and provides data on their behavior as they move through the choroidal and retinal circulation of non-pigmented mice, and in the retinal circulation of pigmented mice. It provides a valuable new tool for the investigation of real time leukocyte dynamics in murine retinal and choroidal microcirculations both under physiological conditions and during the development of ocular disease. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-410
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • scanning laser ophthalmoscopy
  • leukocyte
  • retina
  • choroid
  • circulation
  • image
  • mice
  • CAT


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