Diagenesis can have a major impact on sedimentary mineralogy. Primary magnetic mineral assemblages can be modified significantly by dissolution or by formation of new magnetic minerals during early or late diagenesis. At International Ocean Discovery Program Site C0023, which was drilled in the protothrust zone of the Nankai Trough during Expedition 370, offshore of Shikoku Island, Japan, non-steady state conditions have produced a complex sequence of magnetic overprints. Detailed rock magnetic measurements, which characterize magnetic mineral assemblages in terms of abundance, grain size, and composition, were conducted to assess magnetic mineral alteration and diagenetic overprinting. Four magnetic zones (MZs) are identified down-core from ∼200 to 1,100 m below sea floor based on rock magnetic variations. MZ 1 is a high magnetic intensity zone that contains ferrimagnetic greigite, which formed at shallow depths and is preserved because of rapid sedimentation. MZs 2 and 4 are low magnetic intensity zones with fewer magnetic minerals, mainly coarse-grained (titano-)magnetite and hematite. This magnetic mineral assemblage is a remnant of a more complex assemblage that was altered diagenetically a few million years after deposition when the site entered the Nankai Trough. MZ 3 is a high magnetic intensity zone between MZs 2 and 4. It contains authigenic single-domain magnetic particles that probably formed from fluids that circulated through faults in the accretionary prism. Varying sediment supply and organic matter input through time, burial temperature, and tectonic fluid circulation are the primary drivers of magnetic mineral assemblage variations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research used samples and data provided by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). The authors thank the Marine Works Japan staff at the Kochi Core Center for support during sampling. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Science Research (grant 17K05681 to Myriam Kars), the German Research Foundation (DFG grants 388260220 to Male Koster and Susann Henkel, and 408178672 to Florence Schubotz), and the Australian Research Council (grant DP200100765 to Andrew P. Roberts). The authors also thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and Editor Joshua Feinberg for handling the manuscript.
Data Availability StatementShipboard data from IODP Expedition 370 are accessible at https://sio7.jamstec.go.jp. Expedition 370 Proceedings are available from https://publications.iodp.org/proceedings/370/370title.html. Additional relevant data and figures are provided in Supporting Information S1 or are archived in the World Data Center PANGAEA. Rock magnetic data are available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.929380 (Kars & Köster, 2021) and thermal maturity data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.936510 (Stein, 2021).
- IODP Expedition 370
- iron sulfides
- magnetic minerals
- Nankai Trough
- Site C0023