Investigating the Fit and Accuracy of Alleged Mediumistic Writing: A Case Study of Chico Xavier's Letters

Alexandre Caroli Rocha, Denise Paraná, Elizabeth Schmitt Freire, Francisco Lotufo-Neto, Alexander Moreira-Almeida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Context: The study of mediumship is important because if mediumistic abilities were real, they would provide empirical support for non-reductionist theories of the mind, thus having major implications to our understanding of the mind-brain relationship. This study investigated the alleged mediumship of Chico Xavier, a very prolific and influential "medium" in Brazil. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of the information conveyed in Xavier's "psychographed" letters (i.e., letters allegedly authored by a deceased personality) and to explore the possible explanations for it. Method: After a systematic search for Xavier's psychographed letters, we selected one set of 13 letters allegedly written by a same spiritual author (J.P.). The letters were initially screened for the identification of items of information that were objectively verifiable. The accuracy of the information conveyed by these items and the estimated likelihood of the Xavier's access to the information via normal means were rated using Fit and Leak scales based on documents and interviews carried out with the sister and friends of J.P. Results: We identified 99 items of verifiable information conveyed in these 13 letters; 98% of these items were rated as "Clear and Precise Fit" and no item was rated as "no Fit." We concluded that normal explanations for accuracy of the information (i.e., fraud, chance, information leakage, and cold reading) were only remotely plausible. These results seem to provide empirical support for non-reductionist theories of consciousness.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-308
Number of pages9
JournalExplore: The Journal of Science and Healing
Issue number5
Early online date17 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014

Bibliographical note

We are grateful to Dr Silvio Seno Chibeni, Dr Homero Vallada, Guy Lyon Playfair, Dr Etzel Cardeña, MS Cintia Alves da Silva, Paulo Rossi Severino, and Dr Wellington Zangari for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article and for their encouraging support to our research.

Grant support: This research was supported by a Grant 2010/11047-0 from FAPESP, Brazil (São Paulo Research Foundation)


  • bereavement
  • consciousness
  • Mediumship
  • mind-brain relationship
  • spirituality
  • survival


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigating the Fit and Accuracy of Alleged Mediumistic Writing: A Case Study of Chico Xavier's Letters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this