Stability and safety of offshore wind turbines with mono-pile foundations, affected by nonlinear wave effect and dynamic seabed response, are the primary concerns in offshore foundation design. In order to address these problems, the effects of wave nonlinearity on dynamic seabed response in the vicinity of mono-pile foundation is investigated using an integrated model, developed using OpenFOAM, which incorporates both wave model (waves2Foam) and Biot's poro-elastic model. The present model was validated against several laboratory experiments and promising agreements were obtained. Special attention was paid to the systematic analysis of pore water pressure as well as the momentary liquefaction in the proximity of mono-pile induced by nonlinear wave effects. Various embedded depths of mono-pile relevant for practical engineering design were studied in order to attain the insights into nonlinear wave effect around and underneath the mono-pile foundation. By comparing time-series of water surface elevation, inline force, and wave-induced pore water pressure at the front, lateral, and lee side of mono-pile, the distinct nonlinear wave effect on pore water pressure was shown. Simulated results confirmed that the presence of mono-pile foundation in a porous seabed had evident blocking effect on the vertical and horizontal development of pore water pressure. Increasing embedded depth enhances the blockage of vertical pore pressure development and hence results in somewhat reduced momentary liquefaction depth of the soil around the mono-pile foundation.
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Energy Technology Partnership (ETP), Wood Group Kenny, and University of Aberdeen. JH Zheng and JS Zhang would like to acknowledge the financial support from the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (51425901) and the 111 Project (B12032). The comments and suggestions provided by the anonymous Reviewers have greatly improved the quality of the final manuscript.
- Blockage effect
- Dynamic seabed response
- Momentary liquefaction
- Mono-pile foundation
- Wave-structure-seabed interaction (WSSI)