Is Implicit Level-2 Visual perspective taking embodied? Spontaneous perceptual simulation of others’ perspectives is not impaired by motor restriction

Eleanor Ward, Giorgio Ganis, Dr Katrina L McDonough, Patric Bach* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Visual perspective taking may rely on the ability to mentally rotate one's own body into that of another. Here, we test whether participants' ability to make active body movements plays a causal role in visual perspective taking. We utilised our recent task that measures whether participants spontaneously represent another's visual perspective in a (quasi-)perceptual format that can drive own perceptual decision making. Participants reported whether alphanumeric characters, presented in different orientations, are shown in their normal or mirror-inverted form (e.g., "R" vs. "(SIC)"). Between trials, we manipulated whether another person was sitting either left or right of the character and whether participants' movement was restricted with a chinrest or whether they could move freely. As in our previous research, participants spontaneously took the visual perspective of the other person, recognising rotated letters more rapidly when they appeared upright to the other person in the scene, compared with when they faced away from that person, and these effects increased with age but were (weakly) negatively related to schizotypy and not to autistic traits or social skills. Restricting participants' ability to make active body movements did not influence these effects. The results, therefore, rule out that active physical movement plays a causal role in computing another's visual perspective, either to create alignment between own and other's perspective or to trigger perspective taking processes. The postural adjustments people sometimes make when making judgements from another's perspective may instead be a bodily consequence of mentally transforming one's actual to an imagined position in space.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1244–1258
Number of pages15
JournalQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Issue number7
Early online date18 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Open access via Sage agreement
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support
for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article:
E.W. was funded by a PhD student grant from the University of

Data Availability Statement

The data and materials from the present experiment are publicly
available at the Open Science Framework website:


  • perspective-taking
  • visual perspective taking
  • mentalising
  • submentalising
  • perceptual simulation
  • navigation
  • mental rotation
  • mental imagery
  • active inference


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