Hontomín (N of Spain) hosts the first Spanish CO2 storage pilot plant. The subsurface characterization of the site included the acquisition of a 3-D seismic reflection and a circumscribed 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) survey. This paper addresses the combination of the seismic and MT results, together with the available well-log data, in order to achieve a better characterization of the Hontomín subsurface. We compare the structural model obtained from the interpretation of the seismic data with the geoelectrical model resulting from the MT data. The models correlate well in the surroundings of the CO2 injection area with the major structural differences observed related to the presence of faults. The combination of the two methods allowed a more detailed characterization of the faults, defining their geometry, and fluid flow characteristics, which are key for the risk assessment of the storage site. Moreover, we use the well-log data of the existing wells to derive resistivity-velocity relationships for the subsurface and compute a 3-D velocity model of the site using the 3-D resistivity model as a reference. The derived velocity model is compared to both the predicted and logged velocity in the injection and monitoring wells, for an overall assessment of the computed resistivity-velocity relationships. The major differences observed are explained by the different resolution of the compared geophysical methods. Finally, the derived velocity model for the near surface is compared with the velocity model used for the static corrections in the seismic data. The results allowed extracting information about the characteristics of the shallow unconsolidated sediments, suggesting possible clay and water content variations. The good correlation of the velocity models derived from the resistivity-velocity relationships and the well-log data demonstrate the potential of the combination of the two methods for characterizing the subsurface, in terms of its physical properties (velocity, resistivity) and structural/reservoir characteristics. This work explores the compatibility of the seismic and magnetotelluric methods across scales highlighting the importance of joint interpretation in near surface and reservoir characterization.
Bibliographical noteAcknowledgements. This work is dedicated to the memory of Andrés Pérez-Estaún, brilliant scientist, colleague, and friend. The authors sincerely thank Ian Ferguson and an anonymous reviewer for their useful comments on the manuscript. Xènia Ogaya is currently supported in the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies by a Science Foundation Ireland grant IRECCSEM (SFI grant 12/IP/1313). Juan Alcalde is funded by NERC grant NE/M007251/1, on interpretational uncertainty. Juanjo Ledo, Pilar Queralt and Alex Marcuello thank Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and EU Feder Funds through grant CGL2014- 54118-C2-1-R. Funding for this Project has been partially provided by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, through the CIUDEN-CSIC-Inst. Jaume Almera agreement (ALM-09-027: Characterization, Development and Validation of Seismic Techniques applied to CO2 Geological Storage Sites), the CIUDEN-Fundació Bosch i Gimpera agreement (ALM-09-009
Development and Adaptation of Electromagnetic techniques: Characterisation of Storage Sites) and the project PIERCO2 (Progress In Electromagnetic Research for CO2 geological reservoirs CGL2009-07604). The CIUDEN project is co-financed by the European Union through the Technological Development Plant of
Compostilla OXYCFB300 Project (European Energy Programme for Recovery).