Lifestyle behaviours and quality-adjusted life years in middle and older age

Phyo K Myint, Richard D Smith, Robert N Luben, Paul G Surtees, Nicholas W J Wainwright, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: to examine the relationship between combined lifestyle behaviours and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a general population.

METHODS: a population-based study was conducted in 13,358 men and women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk (baseline 1993-97). A score of 1 was given to each of non-smoking, physically not inactive, moderate alcohol consumption (1-14 units) and consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables (vitamin C level ≥50 µmol/l). Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) health utility index scores were derived from the SF-36. QALYs were estimated up to follow-up (July 2007).

RESULTS: a total of 13,358 men and women were eligible to be included in the study (aged 40-79 years at baseline). A total of 12,921 people were alive at follow-up (117, 784 person-years). Mean follow-up period was ∼11.5 years. 437 (4.4% of men and 2.4% of women) died. The death rate was 6.5 times higher in people with health behaviour score 0 compared with those who scored 4 (8.4 versus 1.3%). People with higher scores had significantly higher QALYs.

CONCLUSION: our findings support the view that modifiable lifestyle factors are an important component in health improvement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)589-955
Number of pages7
JournalAge and Ageing
Issue number5
Early online date26 May 2011
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • adult
  • age factors
  • aged
  • aging
  • alcohol drinking
  • chi-square distribution
  • diet
  • England
  • female
  • fruit
  • health surveys
  • humans
  • life expectancy
  • life style
  • male
  • middle aged
  • models, statistical
  • prospective studies
  • quality-adjusted life years
  • risk reduction behavior
  • smoking
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • vegetables


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