Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2), also called ALX (the lipoxin A4 receptor), conveys the proresolving properties of lipoxin A4 and annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the proinflammatory signals elicited by serum amyloid protein A and cathelicidins, among others. We tested here the hypothesis that ALX might exist as homo- or heterodimer with FPR1 or FPR3 (the two other family members) and operate in a ligand-biased fashion. Coimmunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays with transfected HEK293 cells revealed constitutive dimerization of the receptors; significantly, AnxA1, but not serum amyloid protein A, could activate ALX homodimers. A p38/MAPK-activated protein kinase/heat shock protein 27 signaling signature was unveiled after AnxA1 application, leading to generation of IL-10, as measured in vitro (in primary monocytes) and in vivo (after i.p. injection in the mouse). The latter response was absent in mice lacking the ALX ortholog. Using a similar approach, ALX/FPR1 heterodimerization evoked using the panagonist peptide Ac2-26, identified a JNK-mediated proapoptotic path that was confirmed in primary neutrophils. These findings provide a molecular mechanism that accounts for the dual nature of ALX and indicate that agonist binding and dimerization state contribute to the conformational landscape of FPRs.
Bibliographical noteThis project is supported by the Wellcome Trust (Program Grant 08667/Z/08/Z).
- resolution signalling