Measurement invariance of the student personal perception of classroom climate scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish context

Mustafa Bahar* (Corresponding Author), Mustafa Asil, Christine M. Rubie-Davies

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Among school psycho-social factors with considerable effect on student outcomes are both school and classroom climate. Because how students perceive the classroom climate strongly predicts achievement, measuring classroom climate gains importance and the need for testing the existing results across cultures persists. In this study, we assessed the validity and measurement invariance of the Turkish adaptation of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) developed in English (US). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and measurement invariance (MI) analyses by sex were performed on 629 students’ data. CFA results confirmed the factorial structure of the SPPCC. Results of the MI analyses showed that the SPPCC measures the same construct for females and males in a non-English context. Latent mean comparisons revealed girls perceived the classroom climate more positively than boys. We concluded that this study in theTurkish context is a further step in developing evidence of the extent to which SPCC provides psychometrically sound scores.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-120
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Educational Research
Issue number1
Early online date11 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


  • gender invariance
  • personal perception
  • elementary education
  • classroom climate


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement invariance of the student personal perception of classroom climate scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish context'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this