Measuring the Integration of Social and Environmental Missions in Hybrid Organizations

Edward N. Gamble (Corresponding Author), Simon C. Parker, Peter W. Moroz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration (SEMI) by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations—the degree of integration of their revenue model and social–environmental mission. The SEMI measure is illustrated using a hand-collected sample of 256 North American Certified B Corporations. We explore the heterogeneity of SEMI scores by identifying external-facing correlates and demonstrate non-congruence with Certified B Corporation’s audit results. Overall, our findings advance existing knowledge of these hybrid organizations and how they balance their social–environmental missions with their economic objectives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-284
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Early online date1 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent suggestions of the Section Editor, Julia Roloff and the three anonymous reviewers. We also thank the many Certified B Corporations for their participation in this study. The first author acknowledges research support from the Initiative for Regulation and Applied Economic Analysis (IRAEA) at Montana State University.


  • B Corps
  • Business models
  • Hybrid organizations
  • Social and environmental index
  • Typology
  • Voluntary audits


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