This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration (SEMI) by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations—the degree of integration of their revenue model and social–environmental mission. The SEMI measure is illustrated using a hand-collected sample of 256 North American Certified B Corporations. We explore the heterogeneity of SEMI scores by identifying external-facing correlates and demonstrate non-congruence with Certified B Corporation’s audit results. Overall, our findings advance existing knowledge of these hybrid organizations and how they balance their social–environmental missions with their economic objectives.
Bibliographical noteThe authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent suggestions of the Section Editor, Julia Roloff and the three anonymous reviewers. We also thank the many Certified B Corporations for their participation in this study. The first author acknowledges research support from the Initiative for Regulation and Applied Economic Analysis (IRAEA) at Montana State University.
- B Corps
- Business models
- Hybrid organizations
- Social and environmental index
- Voluntary audits