Mechanics of Fold Development in Pure- and Simple Shear

Maria-Gema Llorens*, Paul D. Bons, Albert Griera, Enrique Gomez-Rivas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPublished conference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


Folds not only help to determine the orientation and magnitude of shortening, but contain much more information on deformation mechanics, kinematics and rheology. The use of folds for strain analysis requires a first-order quantification of the relationships between parameters that determine fold geometry. We present series of 2-dimensional simulations of single-layer folding under pure and simple shear using the software packages ELLE and BASIL. The orientation of the competent layer, the competence contrast between layer and matrix, the stress exponent of the power-law viscous material as well as the boundary conditions are systematically varied to observe the influence of these parameters on fold development. Analyses of stress heterogeneities show that stress localizations are not regularly distributed at the initial stages of folding. Folding of a competent layer requires lower energy (work) in simple shear than in pure shear conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMathematics of Planet Earth
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences
EditorsE PardoIguzquiza, C GuardiolaAlbert, J Heredia, L MorenoMerino, JJ Duran, JA VargasGuzman
Place of PublicationBerlin
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-32407-9, 978-3-642-32408-6
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event15th Annual Conference of the International-Association-for-Mathematical-Geosciences (IAMG) - Madrid, Spain
Duration: 2 Sept 20136 Sept 2013

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Earth System Sciences
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Berlin
ISSN (Print)2193-8571


Conference15th Annual Conference of the International-Association-for-Mathematical-Geosciences (IAMG)


  • kinematical analysis
  • single-layer
  • folding
  • simple shear
  • pure shear
  • stress
  • non-linear rheology


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