Medium-term prognosis of an incident cohort of parkinsonian patients compared to controls

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The best data on prognosis comes from population-based incident cohorts but few such cohorts exist for Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism.

The PINE study is a prospective follow-up study of an incident cohort of people with degenerative or vascular parkinsonism and age-sex matched controls. Participants have annual follow-up from diagnosis until death with review of primary/secondary care records and linkage to the UK death register. Data are collected on survival, disability (dependency on others for activities of daily living) and institutionalization. Research criteria are used to guide the clinical diagnosis, which is updated annually. We compared all-cause mortality, disability and institutionalization in patients (subdivided by diagnosis) and controls, adjusted for important confounders.

323 incident parkinsonian patients (199 Parkinson's disease, 124 atypical parkinsonism, mean age at diagnosis 75yrs) and 262 controls (mean age 75yrs) had 1349 and 1334 person-years follow-up respectively (maximum follow-up 10 years). All outcomes were worse in parkinsonian patients than controls, especially in atypical parkinsonism (adjusted mortality hazards ratios Parkinson's disease 2.49, 95%CI 1.72–3.58, atypical parkinsonism, 6.85, 95%CI 4.78–9.81). Median survival times for Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism were 7.8 and 2.7 years respectively but were very age-dependent. At three years the rates of death or dependency were controls 21%, Parkinson's disease 46%, atypical parkinsonism 96% whilst overall institutionalization rates were 5%, 15% and 55% respectively.

The prognosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism in this unselected incident cohort was significantly worse than previously reported. This has important implications for patient management.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-41
Number of pages6
JournalParkinsonism & Related Disorders
Early online date12 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by Parkinson's UK (grant numbers G0502, G0914), BMA Doris Hillier Award, the BUPA Foundation, NHS Grampian Endowments, RS MacDonald Trust.


  • Parkinson's disease
  • Parkinsonian disorders
  • prognosis
  • cohort study


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