In the current European energy context, the use of recovered industrial waste heat provides an attractive opportunity to substitute primary energy consumption by a low-emission and low-cost energy carrier. In the case of industrial waste heat, this potential is currently not only largely untapped, but also unaccounted for. In order to achieve a widespread use of recovered industrial waste heat, assessments with a large scope and high spatial resolution are needed. Three methods published in the period 2002-2010 have been found in the literature, which are potentially transferable to other regions. These three methods are based on either the energy consumption of each manufacturing sector or the individual site CO2 emissions. The scope of this analysis is, first, to investigate in how far a transfer of the figures to different countries or regions is sensible in comparison to former studies in the literature. In the process, some uncertainties when transferring methods were identified (different definitions of industry, different standard industrial activities classifications or no standard at all, etc.). The second goal is, once the methodology is accepted, to apply it to a case study, in this case the industrial sector in Spain and two of its counties (Catalonia and the Basque Country) for the years 2001, 2009, 2010 and 2013. In this period, and based on the different approaches employed, the Spanish annual industrial waste heat potential ranges from 54.3 to 151.1 PJ, Catalonia from 8.6 to 29.7 PJ, and from 7.2 to 11.9 PJ for the Basque Country. The methods are considered highly transferable but uncertainties inevitably arise in the case that the source and destination industrial sectors are very different.
The authors want to thank the following institutions which helped with the collection of the data used: thank you to Ente Vasco de la Energia (EVE), to Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energia (IDAE), and to Eurostat. They also want to thank specially Urban Persson from Halmstad University (Sweden) for his help and collaboration and to Alvaro Perez de Laborda from EVE. The work is partially funded by the Spanish government (ENE2011-22722 and ULLE10-4E-1305) and by BMWi Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy in Germany (Project FKZ 0327383B Mobile Sorption Heat Storage). The authors would like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to their research group GREA (2014 SGR 123). This project has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under Grant agreement N°PIRSES-GA-2013-610692 (INNOSTORAGE) and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 657466 (INPATH-TES). Laia Miró would like to thank the Spanish Government for her research fellowship (BES-2012-051861).
- Excess heat
- Manufacturing industry
- Waste heat
- Waste heat potential