Molecular evidence for multiple introductions of the banded grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis) in North America

K.K.S. Layton, C.P.K. Warne*, A. Nicolai, A. Ansart, J.R. deWaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Global identification and monitoring programs for invasive species aim to reduce imminent impacts to biodiversity, ecosystem services, agriculture, and human health. This study employs a 658 base pair fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to identify and categorize clades of the banded grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758)) from native (European) and introduced (North American) ranges using a maximum-likelihood phylogeny and haplotype networks. This work corroborates the existence of eight clades within C. nemoralis and further identified three clades that were common to both Europe and North America (A, D, O). Clades A and D were found in eastern Canada, Ontario (Canada), and British Columbia (Canada), whereas clade O was restricted to Ontario, possibly introduced from Poland or central Europe. Haplotype networks suggest clade A was introduced from northern Europe, whereas clade D was introduced from western and central Europe. Networks contained many private haplotypes and a lack of haplotype sharing, suggesting strong genetic structure in this system, possibly resulting from reduced dispersal in this species. This study describes the contemporary distribution of C. nemoralis in Canada and demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcoding for monitoring the spread of invasive species, warranting its widespread adoption in management policies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
JournalCanadian Journal of Zoology
Issue number4
Early online date18 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

We thank Kareina D’Souza, Thanushi Eagalle, Jayme Sones, Monica Young, Crystal Sobel, Kate Perez (and other past/present members of the CBG Collections Team), participants of the Ontario BioBlitzes (, Julie Jacquiery (UMR EcoBio, University Rennes), Paulina Kramasz (Jagellonia University, Krakow, Poland), the Sinclair lab and the Keyghobadi lab (Western University, London, Ontario) as well as their collaborators for aid in specimen collection. We also thank staff at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding (CCDB) for aid in sequence acquisition. We are also grateful to Angus Davison (University of Nottingham), Jade Savage (Bishop’s University), John Slapcinsky (Florida Museum of Natural History), Julien
Brisset (Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris), Lars Hendrich (Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen; records from the BFB-Barcoding Fauna Bavarica project) and Marko Mutanen (University of Oulu) for providing additional sequence data for this manuscript. The Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science enabled this study through grants in support of the International Barcode of Life project (iBOL, while the Canada Foundation for Innovation provided essential infrastructure to the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics (CBG, The research unit UMR 6553 EcoBio provided financial support for sampling through a grant awarded by the working group InvaBio. An earlier version of this paper was improved by comments from two anonymous reviewers.


  • Cepaea nemoralis
  • banded grove snail
  • COI
  • invasive species
  • pest
  • origin
  • DNA barcoding


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