Monitoring of stimulated cycles in assisted reproduction (IVF and ICSI)

Irene Kwan, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Angela Kang, Andrea Woolner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Traditional monitoring of ovarian hyperstimulation during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment has included transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) plus serum estradiol levels to ensure safe practice by reducing the incidence and severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) whilst achieving the good ovarian response needed for assisted reproduction treatment. The need for combined monitoring (using TVUS and serum estradiol) during ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction is controversial. It has been suggested that combined monitoring is time consuming, expensive and inconvenient for women and that simplification of IVF and ICSI therapy by using TVUS only should be considered.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of monitoring controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in IVF and ICSI cycles in subfertile couples with TVUS only versus TVUS plus serum estradiol concentration, with respect to rates of live birth, pregnancy and OHSS.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the National Research Register, and web-based trial registers such as Current Controlled Trials. The last search was conducted in May 2014. There was no language restriction applied. All references in the identified trials and background papers were checked and authors were contacted to identify relevant published and unpublished data.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomised controlled trials that compared monitoring with TVUS only versus TVUS plus serum estradiol concentrations in women undergoing COH for IVF and ICSI treatment were included.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. They resolved disagreements by discussion with the rest of the authors. Outcomes data were pooled and summary statistics were presented when appropriate. The quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE methods.

MAIN RESULTS: With this update, four new studies were identified resulting in a total of six trials including 781 women undergoing monitoring of COH with either TVUS alone or a combination of TVUS and serum estradiol concentration during IVF or ICSI treatment.None of the six studies reported our primary outcome of live birth rate. Pooled data showed no evidence of a difference in clinical pregnancy rate per woman between monitoring with TVUS only and combined monitoring (odds ratio (OR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.54; four studies; N = 617; I² = 5%; low quality evidence). This suggests that compared with women with a 34% chance of clinical pregnancy using monitoring with TVUS plus serum estradiol, the clinical pregnancy rate in women using TVUS only was between 29% and 44%.There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in the reported cases of OHSS (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.48 to 2.20; six studies; N = 781; I² = 0%; low quality evidence), suggesting that compared with women with a 4% chance of OHSS using monitoring with TVUS plus serum estradiol, the OHSS rate in women monitored by TVUSS only was between 2% and 8%.There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in the mean number of oocytes retrieved pre woman (mean difference (MD) 0.32; 95% CI -0.60 to 1.24; five studies; N = 596; I² = 17%; low quality evidence).The evidence was low quality for all comparisons. Limitations included imprecision and potential bias due to unclear randomisation methods, allocation concealment and blinding, as well as differences in treatment protocols. Quality assessment was hampered by the lack of methodological descriptions in several studies.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review update found no evidence from randomised trials to suggest that combined monitoring by TVUS and serum estradiol is more efficacious than monitoring by TVUS alone with regard to clinical pregnancy rates and the incidence of OHSS. The number of oocytes retrieved appeared similar for both monitoring protocols. The data suggest that both these monitoring methods are safe and reliable. However, these results should be interpreted with caution because the overall quality of the evidence was low. Results were compromised by imprecision and poor reporting of study methodology. A combined monitoring protocol including both TVUS and serum estradiol may need to be retained as precautionary good clinical practice and as a confirmatory test in a subset of women to identify those at high risk of OHSS. An economic evaluation of the costs involved with the two methods and the views of the women undergoing cycle monitoring would be welcome.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberCD005289
JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Issue number8
Early online date24 Aug 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Biological Markers
  • Estradiol
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Humans
  • Live Birth
  • Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
  • Ovulation Induction
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Rate
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic


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