Multiobjective optimization of hybrid wind-photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage system: Current situation and possible regulatory changes

Luiz Célio Souza Rocha, Paulo Rotella Junior* (Corresponding Author), Giancarlo Aquila, Alireza Maheri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The challenges presented by increased electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources can be minimized by incorporating energy storage systems (ESS). Despite the benefits, this is still an emerging technology with limited use in Brazil. The aim of the present study is to use a multiobjective optimization process to support the planning of hybrid wind-photovoltaic projects with utility-scale Li-ion battery ESS. Levelised cost of energy (LCOE), diversified energy production density, and net present value are considered as the objectives. The multiobjective optimization is conducted in view of the possible impact of regulatory adjustments necessary for the integration of
ESS in the Brazilian context. The optimization problem has been formulated using the mixture arrangement technique and the Normal Boundary Intersection approach is adopted for search in the design space. It is shown that in the current scenario, the possibility of integrating storage reaches only 17.7% of the project capacity. In addition, the investment cost in ESS impacts the viability of
the project more than the payout for the service provided. Thus, regulatory adjustments must (i) allow the generation of multiple revenues and avoid double taxation; (ii) predict whether there will be a defined minimum payment for services rendered and/or whether there will be a subsidized credit line;
and (iii) develop the production chain that involves storage or create tax incentives for importing equipment to reduce costs. Finally, it is important to highlight that the ESS imposes an increase in the load for the system as a whole and this characteristic needs to be considered for long-term planning.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104467
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Early online date23 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Brazil (Processes 406769/2018-4, 308021/2019-3, 302751/2020-3), the National School of Public
Administration - ENAP Brazil (Process 04600.003102/2020-21) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - Capes Brazilfor the financial support and research incentive.


  • Normal Boundary Intersection
  • Energy storage market
  • Electric power quality
  • Reliability
  • Flexibility


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